Project A04, Future Conservation

Project Summary

Project A04 continues its work on practices of large-scale conservation in southern and eastern Africa. It will pursue research in both prior field sites (Namibia’s Zambezi Region and Kenya’s Baringo County) and widen its efforts in the KAZA transboundary conservation area including conservation areas in south-western Zambia. While the Namibian Zambezi Region is characterized by a declining significance of subsistence agriculture, increasing relevance of social transfers, continued significance of migrant labour, and a rapidly growing tourism sector, south-western Zambia’s population is highly dependent on agriculture, extractive resource exploitation (e.g. timber harvesting), and labour migration. In both settings, traditional authorities wield significant influence and conflict and cooperation between them, the government, and numerous NGOs shape environmental governance. In eastern Africa the project will concentrate on a large wetland conservation area, Lake Baringo and its savannah hinterlands (after successfully working on highland adjoining forest areas in the Lake Baringo catchment in the first phase). In contrast to the well-established conservation conditions of the KAZA conservation area, the situation in the Baringo region is highly fragmented. Lake Baringo itself has maintained a sizeable population of aquatic fauna, and the Lake Baringo wetland is of crucial significance for fishermen, and also for pastoralists and agro-pastoralists living along the lake and in its hinterlands, and eco-tourists visiting the lush savannah wetlands. A04 is strongly linked to the ERC Rewilding.

Research Regions: Zambezi Region, Namibia and Kenya

Keywords: Social and Cultural Anthropology

Key Questions

How and to what degree do households incur costs and benefits from conservation? How are such costs/benefits distributed within households and across communities?

In what way do incomes from conservation spur rural inequality? To what extent are they an option for rural poor to diversify their livelihoods and gain more security?

How are projects of conservation co-produced between local power brokers, national elites, governmental officers, and international actors?

How is conservation linked to other processes, such as economic intensification, infrastructure development, rewilding, ecological invasions, or defaunation?

What role do specific multispecies assemblages play in the planning and implementation of conservation projects and what insights can we, as anthropologists, gain by using the multispecies approach in the conservation context?


Qualitative ethnographic methods; structured and semi-structured interviews; household surveys; cognitive methods; cultural mapping; participatory observation; essay writing.

Key Findings from Phase I

(1) The conservation landscape and its environmental infrastructure in north-eastern Namibia has been shaped by the impact of administrative measures and the gradual decoupling of humans and wildlife in a vast wetland. The path towards today’s conservation landscape was marked and marred by the enforced reordering of human-environment relations. In Kenya, colonial and postcolonial governmental projects of conservation and development transformed forest landscapes, and still continue shaping their ecologies, the lives of their inhabitants and forest-people relations.

(2) Beyond conservation, cattle husbandry in the Zambezi Region is a project of the local population, being an expression of wealth and as a means of saving. At the same time, cattle can be used in farming activities, produce milk and meat for consumption and sale, and fulfil important social functions (i.e. bridewealth payments or cattle loans). However, the needs and practices of expanding cattle husbandry often conflict with the demands and challenges of conservation and conservation-related tourism.

(3) The travelling idea of conservation (and CBNRM in particular) is often detached from the lives of conservancy members who are confronted with the repercussions of conservation, such as human wildlife conflicts or past displacements. For most conservancy members conservation is by far not as relevant as other livelihood strategies, which raises the question to what extent community-based conservation, as practiced today, is a viable future option for many smallholders in the conservancies.

(4) In Baringo, despite rights that allow residents to use public forests in certain ways, they often feel cut off from the benefits of forest exploitation. In turn, some subsistence practices in the forest conflict with governmental conservation goals, in a highly politicized context.

(5) Communities that were displaced in the designation and making of a conservation landscape in the Zambezi Region complain about, protest against and legally contest their estrangement from their former homes that now have become protected areas. They are often relegated to supply cheap manual labour or engage in ‘cultural’ events to well-paying tourists who visit their former ancestral land, a region that is now inhabited by large herds of wildlife and where little or nothing reminds visitors of earlier inhabitants. In Baringo, former forest dwellers are claiming justice for historical evictions from forest areas by colonial and post-independence governments for conservation and exploitation purposes. We argue that conservation of biodiversity can only be successful if issues of past and present environmental injustices are addressed comprehensively.

(6) In Baringo, despite formal dispossessions of forest areas, local populations continue living with the forests. Extensive ecological knowledge and practices of care bind residents to the forest and structure the local economic and social life.

(7) Intimate relations between people and natural environments are determining in the negotiation of future conservation and livelihoods. In Baringo, Kenya, forest histories are reappropriated in political claims. In these struggles, the role of traditional authorities regains significance and cultural identities are being reframed.

Key Project Milestones

  • 2018

    • Launch of the project, preparation of fieldwork
    • Start of fieldwork in Kenya and Namibia, data collection and analysis
    • CRC Retreat in Unkel
  • 2019

    • Intense fieldwork in both countries
    • Presentation of first results at the ECAS in Edinburgh
    • Holding the workshop “Commodifying the ‘Wild’: Conservation, Markets and the Environment in Southern Africa”
    • CRC Retreat in Kloster Steinfeld
  • 2020

    • Fieldwork in Namibia (abruptly ended by the Covid-19 pandemic)
    • Focusing on data analysis and publications
    • Namibia Research Day in Basel
    • Summer School in Bonn
  • 2022

    • Launch of second phase
  • September 2022

    • Project presentation at CRC-TRR 228 kick-off event at University of Namibia in Windhoek
  • 12 October 2022

    Book presentation "Pokot Pastoralism: Environmental Change and Socio-Economic Transformation in North-West Kenya” by Dr. Hauke-Peter Vehrs at Kenyatta University in Nairobi


Bollig, M.. Future Conservation in Africa: Conserving what, and for whom, and how to do it? In: Greiner, C., van Wolputte S., & Bollig, M. (eds) African Futures. ECAS 9. Leiden. Brill.

Bollig, M. and Vehrs, H.P. 2021. The Making of a Conservation Landscape: The Emergence of a Conservationist Environmental Infrastructure Along the Kwando River in Namibia’s Zambezi Region. In: Africa. 91. No. 2: 270-95. DOI

Greiner, C., Vehrs, H.P. & Bollig, M. 2021. ‘Land-use and Land-cover Changes in Pastoral Drylands: Long-term Dynamics, Economic Change, and Shifting Socioecological Frontiers in Baringo, Kenya’, Human Ecology. href="">DOI

Mosimane, A., Matengu, K. & Bollig, M. (forthcoming). Traditional authorities, conservation and commodification of the wild: a Namibian perspective. A Namibian perspective.

Bollig, M. 2021. Materiality, inequality, and future‐making as focal points of future engagement of economic anthropology with climate change. Economic Anthropology 8:180-182. (Contribution to the Forum “What does economic anthropology contribute to the understanding of climate change?). DOI

Bollig, M. 2020. Shaping the African Savannah: From Capitalist Frontier to Arid Eden in Namibia. Cambridge University Press. Link

Bollig, M. & Vehrs, H.P. 2020. Abundant herds: accumulation, herd management and land-use patterns in a conservation area. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice. Vol 10. Link

Bollig, M. 2019. The Anxieties, Thrills, and Gains of Rarity and Extinction: From Discourses on Remnant Fauna to the Globalized Protection and Marketing of Endangered Wildlife in Namibia’s “Arid Eden”. In S. Gänger & Bollig, M. (eds). Forum: Commodifying the “Wild”: Anxiety, Ecology and Authenticity in the Late Modern Era. Environmental History 24 (4). Link

Casimir, M., Vehrs H.P. 2019. Commenting on the article: Comparative Study of Pastoral Property Regimes in Africa Offers No Support for Economic Defensibility Model, published by Moritz, M., Gardiner, E., Hubbe, M. und A. Johnson. In: Current Anthropology. 60(5): 609-36.

Bollig, M. 2018. Themenheft "Naturschutz - Teilhabe und Konflikte." Geographische Rundschau 70 (12), darin: Naturschutz und Naturschutzgebiete weltweit: Chancen und Herausforderungen" (p.4-9) und "Gemeinschaftsbasierter Wildschutz in Nord-Namibia" (p.30-37).Link

Bollig, M. 2018. Afterword: Anthropology, Climate Change and Social-Ecological Transformations. Sociologus 68:85-94. Link

Basukala, A.K., Vehrs, H.P., Bollig, M., Greiner, C., Thonfeld, F. 2019. Spatial-temporal analysis of land-use and land-cover change in East Pokot, Kenya. Documentation, ZFL, Bonn, Germany. DOI: 10.5880/TRR228DB.2

Basukala, A.K., Vehrs, H.P., Bollig, M., Greiner, C., Thonfeld, F. 2019. Dataset: Spatial-temporal analysis of land-use and land-cover change in East Pokot, Kenya. CRC/TRR228 Database (TRR228DB). DOI: 10.5880/TRR228DB.1

Kalvelage, L., Bollig, M., Grawert, E., Hulke, C., Meyer, M., Mkutu, K., Müller-Koné, M., Revilla Diez, J. 2021. ‘Territorialising Conservation: Community-based Approaches in Kenya and Namibia’, Conservation and Society. href="">Access Link

Vehrs, H.P. 2022. 'Pokot Pastoralism: Environmental Change and Socio-Economic Transformation in North-West Kenya', James Currey, Future Rural Africa Series. href="">Access Link

Vehrs, H.P., Kalvelage, L., Nghitevelekwa, R. 2022. 'The Power of Dissonance: Inconsistent Relations Between Travelling Ideas And Local Realities in Community Conservation in Namibia's Zambezi Region', Conservation & Society, [Epub ahead of print], Link to preprint

Vehrs, H.-P., Zickel, M., 2023. Can environmental injustices be addressed in conservation? Settlement history and conservation-induced displacement in the case of Lyanshulu in the Zambezi Region, Namibia. Human Ecology (2023) Full Text

Outlook for phase II (2022 - 2025)

A04’s activities in phase II start off from the assumption that the combination of a comparative approach, a strongly interdisciplinary agenda and an in-depth ethnographic focus dealing with multispecies assemblages (WP 6-8) will contribute to a fuller understanding of future-making via conservation in the 21st century. We seek to examine how human livelihoods, social institutions, imaginaries, and attitudes change under new socio-ecological conditions of conservation Humans are excluded from conservation areas, or land use is reduced to provide space for refaunation. Migration corridors for large ungulates are kept free of human habitation and occasionally wildlife is introduced into some areas that often have been bare of wildlife for decades. At the same time, these emergent conservation landscapes are vulnerable: global climate change endangers species compositions and enforces extinction, and important diseases and invader species threaten the “authenticity” (however such authenticity is defined) of ecosystems. We further intend to focus more on multi-species assemblages – as it is such assemblages that conservation strategies directly address. Each assemblage is comprised of a loose multi-scalar network consisting of different species populations, environmental infrastructures and technologies, human actors, and organizations.

Partner Institutions